I never forget visiting a friend in the hospital. He was convalescing from injuries he sustained from being run over by a vehicle at a cross street as he exercised in his neighborhood. Since then, I adopted the idea of minimizing my exposure as a pedestrian to traffic. When I want to exercise, I go to a park. One of the things we were taught as little kids in elementary school in West Africa is to always watch out for vehicles as we walked and avoid conflicts with them. There were no sidewalks or pedestrian safety appurtenances and yet pedestrian accident casualties were very minimal. We were taught to be fully responsible for our safety as we walked.
In addition to all the robust pedestrian safety design features we use as civil engineers, I suggest, if not already in place, we develop a strong and comprehensive curriculum for pedestrian centric safety courses from elementary school through college. From this exercise, pedestrian situational awareness will become second nature. This exercise will save lives.
Others have alluded to this, but I want to state bluntly that this is not really an engineering problem, but a problem of human psychology.To ensure maximum safety, roadways and related infrastructure need to be designed so drivers, bikers, and pedestrians approaching areas of conflict with other modes of travel get that primal feeling of confusion, disorientation, or some danger signal that puts them on their guard. No amount of law enforcement or public education campaign can match this.This doesn't mean designing deliberately dangerous roadways, but instead using visual, tactile, and audio cues (maybe even smell if you can figure out how to make it work) to trigger that raising of one's guard. Blocks of bright warm colors, changes in ground texture (rumble strips, grass strips, bumpy pavement), mazes of bollards or trees, creative use of plants, pavement bump-outs, changes in elevation (raised crosswalks), low beeping tones similar to those used at hearing-impaired accessible crossing signals, combined with clear sight lines, are all ways this can be achieved.If you have a specific location in mind, nothing beats going out there with some props (traffic cones, cardboard boxes, throw rugs, whatever else is handy and movable) and playing with different layouts to see what gets people's attention.